8. Income taxes

EUR 1,000 2018 2017

Income taxes from business operations -99 -4
Withholding taxes paid abroad -3,893 -3,876
Change in withholding tax accrual 70 153
Income taxes total -3,923 -3,726

The company has not deducted research and development costs amounting to EUR 71,282 (76 880) thousand in its taxation. The amount can be deducted over an indefinite period with amounts that the company may freely decide. The company has no tax losses at the end of 2017 and 2018. Other deductible temporary differences amount to EUR 2 418 (2,374) thousand. No deferred tax assets have been recognised on these capitalisations because of the uncertainty about utilising them.