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8. Research and development expenditure

EUR 1,000 2018 2017



Product development expenses recognised in income statement total -5,257 -5,973



Product development expenses in relation to net sales 12.5% 10.8%
Product development expenses in relation to total expenses 8.3% 9.4%



Product development expenses in relation to net sales and total expenses are disclosed in the Key figures section for five years.